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掌握3个技巧让你的作文瞬间高大上!

文章来源:吉林市济群培训    发布时间:2018-06-07   浏览次数: 764

单词和短语是文章最基本的组成单位,用词是否出彩在一定程度上决定了文章是否能得高分!要想用对词,必须遵循以下原则:

1无重复原则

英语写作中经常会出现在同一文章中反复使用同一个词、词组的情况,这就是我们通常所说的重复。用词重复主要表现在名词、动词、形容词等实词的重复上。例如:

名词重复
Catherine offered him moral help and also practical help.

动词重复
I like reading while my brother likes playing football.

形容词重复
Mark Twain is famous for his short novels in America, and now he isalso becoming more and morefamous with Chinese readers.

为避免用词的重复,可采用以下方法:

省略

省略是避免重复最主要的手段。它可以节省词语,使句子结构更紧凑,还可以有效避免名词、动词、形容词的重复。例如:

名词省略
They are fine actors. Smith is the finest (actor) I’ve ever seen.

动词省略
Jack needn’t stay here, but George must (stay here).

形容词省略
Robert seemed angry, and George certainly was (angry).

代词代替

这种方法主要用于解决名词的重复问题。例如:

Catherine offered him moral help and also practical help.
可改为:Catherineoffered him moral help and also practical one.

再如:Can you repairthis chair? I broke it yesterday.

同义词、反义词、派生词转换

名词、动词、形容词都适用这种方法。

名词同义词转换
原句:The snow was heavy last night.
修改后: It snowed heavily last night.

动词同义词转换
原句:The runner couldn’t catch up with the others in the race. 
修改后:The runnerfell behind the others in the race.

形容词同义词转换
原句:I am completely confident that I am competent for the new job. 
修改后:I am completely confident that I am qualified for the new job. 

2短语优先原则

使用短语替换单词具有两大优势:
文章显得更为地道,增加亮点;
增加字数。

例:

原句:When he was a child, he wanted to learn everything.
修改后:When he was a child, he had a strong appetite for knowledge.

与原句中的wanted to learn everything相比,修改后的例句中的had astrong appetite for knowledge更能表现出“他”的求知若渴,表达更加生动。

常见的单词转化成短语的方法有:

形容词变短语方法:of+同根名词

常见的形容词及对应短语有:

  形容词      短语
very    important 非常重要的    of great importance
very    difficult 非常困难的    of great difficulty
very    difficult 非常困难的    of  great difficulty
very    beautiful 非常美丽的    of  great beauty
very  useful 非常有用的    of great use
very  helpful 非常有帮助的    of  great help
very  harmful 非常有害的    of  great harm
very    valuable 非常有价值的     of  great value
very    significant 至关重要的    of  great significance
very    necessary 非常必要的    of  great necessity

动词变短语方法:同义短语替换

常用的动词和对应动词短语如下:

  动词      动词短语
stand 承受    put up  with
consider  考虑    take...into  consideration/account
exist 存在    come  into existence/being
like 喜欢    be  fond of, take delight in
support支持    be in  favor of, approve of
think 想,认为    harbor  the idea that, hold the view that
explain  解释    account  for
agree 同意,赞成    approve  of
conclude  得出结论    come  to/draw a conclusion
remember  记住    bear/keep  in mind
cause 引起    bring  about
raise 提出    bring/put up, set forth
absorb采纳,吸收    take  in
cancel  取消    call  off
eliminate  取消    completely get rid of
help 帮助    give a  hand
delay 耽误,耽搁    hold  off
emphasize  重视    attach  great importance to
replace  代替    take  the place of
use 使用    make  use of, take advantage of
know 知道    be aware of


3词义具体化原则

所谓词义具体化就是指写作过程中尽量避免使用意义宽泛、模糊的词,要根据语境使用具体、生动的词。

这些高分替换词,一定要马住!

  低分词      高分词
good 好的    superb,    brilliant, outstanding, awesome
bad 坏的    adverse,    evil, terrible, horrible
old 老的    old-fashioned,   outdated, antiquated, archaic
strange 陌生的    eccentric,    peculiar, odd, weird
short 短的    transient,    short-lived
forever 永远    for    good, perpetually
different 不同的    unique,    distinctive, dissimilar
do 做    conduct,    carry out, execute
see 看见    witness,    observe, spot, glimpse
increase  增加,提高    soar,    escalate, double/triple
walk 走    wander,    stride, sneak, creep
learn 学习    acquire,    review, master
get 取得    obtain,    attain
help 帮助    assist,    aid
mean 意思是    suggest,    indicate, imply, symbolize
picture  图画    drawing,    painting, cartoon
big 大的    immense,   enormous, tremendous
cause 引起    give    rise to, trigger, result in, arouse
make 做    produce,    create, develop
rich 丰富的    wealthy,    affluent, ample
cheap 便宜的    economical,    inexpensive, affordable
common  普遍的    widespread,    prevalent
change  改变    transform,    alter, modify
people  人    individuals,    adolescents, adults
famous  著名的    renowned,    celebrated, distinguished, prominent
think 想    suppose,    claim, maintain, presume, assume
keep 保存    preserve,    conserve
break 破坏    undermine,   jeopardize, devastate

温馨提示,由于英语词义范围非常广泛,即便是同义词也只是某种程度上的近似,不可能在意义上完全对等,所以大家在选词时要注意同义词含义上的细小差别哦。

例如:

句一: So there arises the problem:What should we do to get rid of the wrong attitudes toward the migrant workers?

句二: So there arises the question:What should we do to get rid of the wrong attitudes toward the migrant workers?

problem指的是“实际存在的问题”或“需要解决的现实问题”,question指的是“可获得解释或回答的问题”,此处用question更为恰当。